Introduction to Pneumatic systems- advantages and applications

#Technical studies – Study 16


The word pneuma means breathe. Pneumatic system is the fluid power system that uses compressed air as a medium for controlling and transmitting the power. The device that used for compressing the air is called compressor. The compressed air is stored in a container for further use that is called reservoir.

Basic concept of pneumatic system:

Pneumatic system uses compressed air as a signal carrier for its function. The basic concept of pneumatic system is:-

A compressor that runs on an electric motor or an internal combustion engine produces pneumatic power in the form of compressed air.

Valves those are similar to electrical variable resistors which control the flow of compressed air to the pneumatic components.

Actuators are the output devices that convert the potential energy of compressed air in to useful mechanical power. (An Actuator is a device that converts any form of energy to motion)

Connectors used in pneumatic systems are similar to electrical wires, they used to link various pneumatic components and allow compressed air to flow through it.

Advantages of pneumatic systems:

  • Air is everywhere and free of cost
  • Pneumatic elements are overload safe
  • System is safe, no fear of fire or explosion
  • Pneumatic technology is easy to learn
  • High speed operation is possible
  • No connection required for return line

Disadvantages of pneumatic systems:

  • Uniform piston speed is not possible in pneumatic system
  • It is loud and noisy
  • This system is economical only for low power requirements

Applications of pneumatic system:

Pneumatics systems are used in

  • Packaging industries
  • Medical
  • Factory automation
  • Material handling
  • Food and beverages
  • Door open and closing systems

Block diagram of pneumatic system

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