Python Vs. JavaScript: What Is the Difference?

This article is for you if you want to know the difference between Python and JavaScript.  

Both languages are powerful and popular, but they have several similarities, which I am going to cover in this article. This article features an in-depth comparison between Python and JavaScript to make the topic clear to everyone.   

In this article, you will learn what Python and JavaScript are, their uses, popularity, features, and a side-by-side comparison between them. So, let’s begin…  

Python is a prominent programming language that focuses on dynamism, simplicity, and compact code structure. It is a high-level, object-oriented language and is easy to read, learn, and maintain. On the other hand, JavaScript is a scripting language that adheres to the ECMAScript standards.  

Let’s now begin our discussion on Python Vs. JavaScript with an introduction, benefits, and uses of Python and JavaScript. 

Python Vs. JavaScript – A Detailed Guide

python vs. javascript
Python vs JavaScript

Introduction to Python

Released in 1991, Python is a general-purpose, high-level language that can resolve any problem with code. The language is easy to learn, enabling anyone to quickly understand and use it in their projects effectively.  

Due to its easiness, it is the first preference in applications such as game development, machine learning, web applications, artificial intelligence, data processing, etc.  

The simple coding environment of Python makes the learning curve shorter, even for non-technical people. Mastering this language will allow anyone to leverage its power and create several modern apps.  

Python is used in many fields, such as artificial intelligence, computer vision, machine learning, data science, scientific applications, medicine, astronomy, biology, back-end development of web apps, etc.    

Top companies using Python are Google, Instagram, Facebook, Quora, Netflix, Pinterest, Spotify, Dropbox, Reddit, etc. 

python logo

Benefits of Python  

As one of the top programming languages, Python offers several benefits, and those are as follows.  

  • It has user-friendly data structures, making the coding process easier. 
  • Python supports community development with its open-source feature.  
  • It has access to various libraries and modules for different tasks. 
  • Simplicity and readability are paramount in Python.  
  • Enables users to do complex tasks with simple code.   
  • The language is dynamically typed and fully flexible.  
  • It is a non-compiled language, so writing and testing code is faster than compiled languages.  

Introduction to JavaScript  

javascript logo

JavaScript (released in 1995) is a scripting language designed to be used on the user side of the web browser. This is why JavaScript is also called a browser’s language. JavaScript usually makes web pages interactive by installing dynamic text into HTML.  

Initially, there were some limitations in JavaScript, affecting its usability. However, these issues have become extinct with the help of modern-day JavaScript frameworks such as NodeJS, React, jQuery, AngularJS, TezJS, Vue, etc.  

With this facility, JavaScript is now a great choice for front-end and back-end web development. As per data, 98% of websites worldwide use JavaScript for user-side development. Also, JavaScript has access to several libraries and frameworks, empowering developers to create outstanding applications.  

In fact, the reason why I compare Python and JavaScript in this article is both find their applications in web development, automation, mobile development, etc., so knowing the difference between them will help you select the right one for your project.    

JavaScript has dominance in web development and is used for both front-end and back-end development. JavaScript plays an important role in client-side development and makes websites interactive. It is also ideal for cross-platform applications, such as mobile app development, using frameworks like react native.   

Top organizations using JavaScript are Microsoft, Google, Facebook, Uber, PayPal, Netflix, Walmart, LinkedIn, etc. 

Benefits of JavaScript  

  • It is a powerful scripting language with an object-oriented facility.  
  • JavaScript is used to add interactive elements to web pages.    
  • It supports all types of web browsers.  
  • It is used for both server-side and user-side development.  
  • JavaScript’s execution always occurs on the client side, which helps save plenty of bandwidth.  

Python Vs. JavaScript: Comparison Table  

Here, I have listed the differences between Python and JavaScript in a tabular for easy understanding.  

Points  Python  JavaScript  
When released and by whom 20th February 1991 by Guido van Rossum End of 1995 by Brendan Eich 
Purpose  Python is a general-purpose, high-level, interpreted programming language that focuses on readability and clarity.  JavaScript is a scripting programming language used for front-end development of web apps.  
Uses  Due to its versatile design, Python is used in many applications, including artificial intelligence, machine learning, data analysis, etc.  JavaScript is mainly used in web and mobile development applications.  
Syntax type  Python features indentation formatting and focuses on readable and clean syntax.   JavaScript has semicolons and curly braces like C but offers flexibility in coding.    
Inheritance style  The inheritance style of Python is class-based.  JavaScript supports prototype inheritance.  
Learning curve  Due to simplicity, learning Python is easier.  Compared to Python, JavaScript has a steeper learning curve.  
Support for libraries and modules Python has 3 lakhs+ libraries and multiple built-in modules.   JavaScript’s ecosystem is enormous with more than 1 million libraries.  
Mutability  Python has mutable data types.  In JavaScript, objects and arrays are mutable.   
REPL availability Python has a built-in REPL facility  REPL in JavaScript is possible via NodeJS or browser consoles  

Python Vs. JavaScript: A Detailed Comparison  

Both JavaScript and Python are powerful and high-level programming languages with different purposes. One can’t replace another in case of functionality and usability. However, it is crucial to understand the benefits of both and use them where they suit the most.   

Now, I am going to compare different aspects of Python and JavaScript to give you a better understanding of both. Also, you will know how you can use both Python and JavaScript in your projects to get advantages of both technologies.  

Syntax Comparison  

The syntaxes of Python and JavaScript are different but readable. In this section, we will discuss different aspects of their syntaxes, such as code blocks, data types, operators, loops, etc.  

1. Code Blocks  

Python code blocks  

Code blocks in Python are indentation-based, which is determined by the space at the beginning of a code line. One thing you have to keep in mind is that the number of spaces should be the same.   

Example of indentation in Python –  

  if 9 < 10:  
      print(“ Nine is less than ten”) 

JavaScript code blocks  

Unlike Python, JavaScript uses curly braces to indicate code blocks.  

Example of a code block in JavaScript –  

   if (9 < 10) { 
      console.log(“Nine is less than ten”);  

2. Defining and naming variables  


In Python, a variable is defined by writing the variable name, an equal sign (=), and the value assigned to it. Python variables start with lowercase letters with underscores to separate words. An example of a Python variable is –  

   <variable_name> = <value> 
      x = 10 


In JavaScript, a variable is defined with a keyword var or let before the variable name and then a value assigned to it. The code line ends with a semicolon.

A JavaScript variable name starts with a lowercase letter, and then every new word starts with a capital letter. An example is as follows: 

var <variableName> = <value> 
  var x = 10 
  let x = 10 
3. Defining Constants  

Defining constants in Python  

In Python, constants are defined in modules. The letters should be written in all capitals, and the words should be separated using underscores. Here is an example of writing constants in Python.  

VALUE_OF_PI = 3.14 

Defining constants in JavaScript  

JavaScript constants are defined with the keyword const before the constant name.  


const VALUE_OF_PI = 3.14 
4. Writing Comments  

In Python, we use a # symbol before writing a comment. After the hashtag, anything written will be considered a comment. In case of multiple comments, you need to start each line with a hashtag (#).  


In JavaScript, we use two slashes to write a comment. For multiple comments, you can use this:  

5. Operators  

Arithmetic Operators  

Most arithmetic operators in Python and JavaScript are similar except for the Floor Division operator. 

In Python, this is also called integer division and is represented with two slashes (//).  

On the other hand, JavaScript doesn’t have a specific floor division operator and uses the Math.floor () method to perform this job. 

Logical Operators  

Logical operators in Python are and, or, and not, while in JavaScript, these operators have symbolic representations such as &&, ||, and !.     

Type Operators  

Python uses a type () function to check the type of an object whereas, in JavaScript, typeof operator is used for the same.  

Comparison operators   

Both JavaScript and Python use the same comparison operators, i.e., ==, for comparing two values and their types, but they function differently. For instance, when you compare two integers in Python, the result is true, but comparing integer vs string gives a false result. 

On the other hand, JavaScript gives a true result when you compare integer vs string. This is because the objects are converted to the same type before being compared in JavaScript. Here is a visual illustration.  

In Python  

# comparing two integers  
          5 == 5  
# Comparing integer vs string  
          5 == “5” 

In JavaScript  

  5 == “5”  

But if you use the triple equal sign, the result will be similar to Python. For instance:  

5 === “5” 
6. Different Data Types 

Let’s now see the difference between data types used in Python and JavaScript.  

Numeric Data Types  

In Python, there are three types of numeric data types – integer (int), float, and complex. And all of them are different in terms of their properties and applications.  

On the other hand, JavaScript has only two numeric data types – Number and BigInt. Both integer and float data types come under the Number data type in JavaScript.  

Sequence or Collection Types  

Both Python and JavaScript have some mechanisms to represent a set or collection of data of the same types. Let’s now compare these here.  

Data types used in Python for the collection of data are as follows:  

  • Strings: Strings are a collection of characters such as digits, letters, punctuation marks, etc. They are used for data manipulation, data storage, and other functions in a program.  
  • Lists: Lists are built-in data types in Python that hold a collection of values in an ordered manner. These data types can hold values of different data types.  
  • Tuples: Tuples function the same as lists, but they are immutable.  

Data types used in JavaScript for collection of data are as follows:  

  • Strings: Strings in JavaScript function the same as strings in Python.  
  • Arrays: Arrays are an ordered collection of values that can store any data type.  
  • Objects: Objects are non-primitive types in JavaScript that store values of different primitive data types.      

Primitive Data Types 

Primitive data types are fundamental types that are used in the process of programming. Here is a comparison between these two languages.  

In Python, there are four primitive data types – Integers (int), Float (float), Strings (str), and Booleans (bool).     

On the other hand, there are seven primitive data types in JavaScript – Number, Boolean, String, BigInt, Symbol, null, and undefined.  

7. Input/Output Style  

Taking user input and displaying an output is one of the most common tasks to perform in any programming language. Let’s now discuss how you can do this in Python and JavaScript.  

Input/Output in Python  

For user input, the input () function is used in Python. In the brackets, you can write the message to enter a value.  

user_input = input (“Enter a character - ”) 

For output, the print () function is used. Within the braces, the output value is passed.  

print (message) 

Input/output in JavaScript  

In JavaScript, the input task is performed with a prompt – window.prompt (message). It shows a prompt on the screen letting the user enter a value for the variable.  

var input = window.prompt (“Enter a character”);  For the output, you can use the console.log () function. Within the braces, the output value will be passed. Other than this, you can also use other methods such as alert () and document.write () for output.  

8. Conditional Statements  

Conditional statements are used in a language to perform certain tasks when a condition becomes true or false. Both Python and JavaScript have different types of conditional statements, such as the if statement and the if/else statement.  

Also, JavaScript has a switch statement, but Python doesn’t have such structures. So, let’s now discuss these conditional statements one by one.  

if Statement  

As always, Python follows indentation for the code within the statement, and the statement is written on the top followed by the condition and a colon.  


    if condition:  

In JavaScript, the condition is stated under brackets, and then the curly braces start. Within the curly braces, we write the code with indentation.  


    if (condition) { 
      // code  

if/else Statement  

The if part of both Python and JavaScript is the same as the normal if statement.  

For the else part, Python uses a colon “:” symbol after the else keyword, and the code follows indentation.  


    if condition:  

In JavaScript, the code of the else clause is placed within curly braces. 


    if (condition) { 
      // code  
  else { 
    // code  

In addition to this, there is a situation of multiple conditions where the program gives different outputs for different conditions.  

In this situation, Python uses the elif keyword followed by the condition and a colon symbol. Then, the code starts from the next line.   

On the other hand, JavaScript uses the else if keyword with the condition in brackets. Then, the curly braces start in which you write the code.  

Python Example  

if condition1:  
elif condition2:  
elif condition3:  

JavaScript Example 

if (condition) { 
      // code  
  } else if (condition 2) { 
} else if (condition 3) { 
  else { 
      // code  

Switch case in JavaScript 

As I mentioned above, JavaScript has a switch statement that selects a task to do depending on the result of certain expressions. Python doesn’t have such a control structure.  

Here, I have an example of a switch case used in JavaScript.  

switch (expression) { 
case value 1: 
           // code  
case value 2: 
          // code  
case value 2: 
          // code  
case value 4: 
          // code  
        // code 
9. Loops  

Let’s now discuss the different types of loops used in Python and JavaScript and figure out what differences they have. For and While loops are common in both Python and JavaScript, but JavaScript also has a do…while loop.  

For Loops  

Compared to the For loop syntax in JavaScript, python has a simpler syntax. The for loop syntax in Python has the for keyword, the name of the loop variable, the in keyword, the range function, and then a colon “:” symbol is added.     

We write this as follows:  

for j in range (n):  

In JavaScript, the syntax is different – it is like the C language. We write the JavaScript syntax of the for loop as follows:  

For (var j = 0; j < n; j++) {  
           // code  

How to iterate through iterable?  

Iterables are objects that can be iterated by using the iter() function in Python. Here, we will discuss how the process of iteration works in Python and JavaScript using the for loop.   In Python, the syntax of the for loop is the same for the process of iteration, but instead of the range () function, we write the iterable element.

Here is an example of it:  

for j in iterable:  

In JavaScript, we use for …. of loops for the process of iteration. Here is how to write this in JavaScript.  

for (var j of iterable) { 

While loops   The syntax of while loops in both Python and JavaScript are similar. In Python, we use the while keyword and then the condition followed by the colon symbol. The code for the loop starts from the next line with indentation.  

while condition:  
       # code        

The only difference in JavaScript is that the condition is surrounded by brackets and the code is written within the curly braces.  

while (condition) {  
// code  

Do … while Loop in JavaScript  

Do – while loop is only available in JavaScript, and it executes the code at least once before the condition is met. The syntax of do … while loop is as follows:  

Do { 
// code  
} while (condition);  
10. Functions  

Defining functions in Python and JavaScript are nearly similar. In Python, we use the def keyword, the function name, the parameters within parentheses, and then a colon. From the next line, the coding starts.  

def function_name (p1, p2, p3, ...): 
# code   

The syntax in JavaScript is similar, but it uses the function keyword and places the code within curly braces.  

function function_name(p1, p2, p3, ...) { 
// code  

Learning Curve  

Compared to JavaScript, Python is easier to learn for beginners due to its concise and readable code, intuitive variables and functions, and easy-to-understand syntax. It is the reason why most beginners prefer Python over JavaScript.  

JavaScript’s strict syntax and complicated class definitions make it a bit difficult to understand the concepts, eventually making the learning curve steeper.  


When it comes to performance, Python is used for CPU-side applications, while JavaScript is used for client-side and real-world uses.  

The main purpose of JavaScript is to make the web fast for a better user experience. The presence of a multithreading feature in JavaScript (thanks to NodeJS) makes it faster compared to Python.  

On the other hand, Python is capable of processing huge files and performing rigorous tasks on the CPU side. Also, for large-scale applications, Python is the best solution. 


In terms of popularity, JavaScript was the most used language in 2023. The Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2023 states that around 64% of users use JavaScript, while almost 50% of users use Python for their projects.  

According to this survey, JavaScript is in the 1st position, followed by HTML/CSS, and Python is in the third position.  

But the PYPL ranking in September 2023 places Python in the 1st position and JavaScript in the third position. Therefore, both JavaScript and Python are popular among programmers, depending on the benefits and strengths they provide.  

Applications of Python  

As discussed above, Python and JavaScript exchange their positions worldwide in terms of popularity, which states that both languages are widely used. Let’s now discuss some of the key applications of Python.  

Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence  

One of the top applications of Python is machine learning and artificial intelligence due to its extensive libraries. Its libraries make it easier for developers to write machine learning algorithms.    

Data Science  

Python is well known for being the best language for data science and data analysis. Popular libraries such as NumPy, Pandas, and SciPy are helpful for this field. They act as essential tools for data exploration, cleaning, and manipulation.  

Other than that, TensorFlow, PyTorch, and Scikit Learn help analysts in research tasks.   

Internet of Things (IoT) 

The concise and simplicity of Python language make it suitable for Internet of Things developments. This language is used for creating embedded software, smart home devices, sensors, etc. You can run Python on microcontrollers using the MicroPython library.     

Scientific Computing  

Python is the language of choice for solving complex mathematical problems and creating numerical models and simulations. Scientists and researchers use SymPy and Matplotlib libraries of Python for mathematical and computing problems.   

Game Development  

Python is the perfect choice for game development applications due to its dynamic interface. Also, it makes the game responsive and manages the sound and graphics efficiently. Python’s Pygame library is used for this purpose.   

Text Processing and Image Recognition  

The Natural Language Toolkit of Python is used for analyzing and processing data such as texts and images. This is the reason why Python is used for image recognition and text processing tasks.   

Software Development  

Software development is one of the prominent applications of Python. It is used for developing desktop applications, web applications, and mobile applications.  

Most developers prefer Python for their projects because it provides readability, simplicity, and access to a wide range of libraries. Some popular frameworks for web development are Django, Flask, Bottle, CherryPy, Falcon, etc.  

Applications of JavaScript  

As the most popular language for web development, JavaScript is used in a wide variety of applications. Here, I am listing some of the popular applications of JavaScript.  

Web Development 

One of the most popular applications of JavaScript is web development. It is used for both front-end and back-end development, enabling developers to build several services and web applications.  

  • Front-End Development  

JavaScript enhances the user experience by making the web pages interactive and responsive. Some popular front-end frameworks of JavaScript are React, Angular, Vue, GatsbyJS, and Svelte.  

  • Back-End Development  

Javascript is not only limited to front-end development, but it is also a great choice for back-end development thanks to the cross-platform software NodeJS. Some brands that use this technique are PayPal, LinkedIn, Uber, Netflix, etc.          

Mobile App Development 

Mobile app development is another top application of JavaScript. JavaScript is used for developing both Android and iOS applications.    

Digital Art Applications 

JavaScript is used by artists to create digital artworks with excellent visuals and dynamism. Some popular JavaScript libraries used for digital art creation are Three.js and p5.js.   


JavaScript is a great option for creating browser-based games. With the help of JavaScript and HTML5, developers can create interactive games in the browser.  

Desktop Applications  

JavaScript is also used for developing desktop applications due to its cross-platform capabilities. A popular framework used for this job is Electron. This uses JavaScript, CSS, and HTML for creating interactive desktop apps.  

Internet of Things (IoT)  

JavaScript is also used in IoT devices. There is a JavaScript framework called Johnny Five that helps control Arduino boards and other hardware devices.  

Can we use Python with JavaScript and vice versa?  

Certainly! You can use Python with JavaScript and vice versa in your projects. As we discussed above, Python is suitable for back-end development, while JavaScript is ideal for front-end development. Therefore, integrating these two helps create adaptable and robust web applications, mobile applications, software, etc.  

A Python library called PythonMonkey works with the SpiderMonkey JavaScript engine of Mozilla, allowing you to use Python with JavaScript seamlessly.  

JSPyBridge functions like a bridge between Node.js and Python, enabling you to exchange data between these two languages.  

Also, one can use JavaScript with Python for web development using frameworks like Django and Flask. Some of the top companies that use both Python and JavaScript are Google, Facebook, Instagram, Dropbox, Uber, Spotify, Quora, YouTube, Netflix, and Mozilla.    

Future Perspectives on Python and JavaScript  

Python and JavaScript are both popular languages today in the field of web development. Both have their unique strengths to be used for various purposes widely. The use of Python and JavaScript is going to increase in the future to build different technologies.  

Future Trends of Python  

Python is popularly used in the field of machine learning and AI, and its eminence is going to strengthen in the future. With the use of TensorFlow, PyTorch, and scikit-learn libraries, Python makes it easier to build advanced applications and solutions.  

In the field of web development, Python’s role will be stronger, helping developers build robust web applications. Apart from that, cross-platform usages of Python are also rising, where tools like BeeWare and Kivy take a prominent role.  

Python is compatible with microcontrollers which makes it a great choice for IoT Applications.  

Other technologies, including ethical hacking, cybersecurity, robotics, blockchain, extended reality development, and computer vision, use Python. This makes Python a popular language for emerging technologies in the present and for the future as well.    

Future Trends of JavaScript  

JavaScript is the language of choice for web development applications. But it is also used in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and the Internet of Things.  

Developers can create robust and scalable applications by integrating JavaScript with artificial intelligence. In the field of robotics, JavaScript is used for developing web applications that control robots.  

It is also used in blockchain technologies for running decentralized apps in browsers. In addition to that, it is going to have a noteworthy role in the field of server-side development with the NodeJS framework.  

JavaScript also finds its applications in the field of data science for front-end development, making the user experience better.       

When should you use Python?  

You can use Python when building excellent web applications. Frameworks like Django and Flask will make your job easier. When performing computer vision and image recognition tasks, python is the first preference.  

Python is the choice for automating multiple repetitive tasks, stock market, game development, advanced web applications, scientific computing, data analysis, Internet of Things, Embedded systems, scripting applications, etc.  

When should you use JavaScript?  

JavaScript is the first choice for the front-end development of web applications. It boasts a wide range of frameworks and libraries for this job. Also, its versatility makes it a good choice for the development of desktop and mobile applications.     

JavaScript also serves as a great tool for server-side development with NodeJS. Apart from that, JavaScript can also be integrated with different web APIs and used to build different web extensions.  


Comparing Python and JavaScript side by side and choosing one over the other is not good, as both are created for different purposes. However, in this comparison guide, I explained both languages in detail so you can easily figure out which language is suitable for what task.  

Both languages have their unique strengths and features and some limitations, so the key is to use both languages depending on the requirements and preferences of projects.  


Which is better Python or JavaScript?  

Picking one language between Python and JavaScript is not a wise decision as they are suitable for different applications. Python is a great choice for scientific computing, data science, and other applications where readability is necessary. On the other hand, JavaScript is ideal for creating user interfaces and high-performance web pages.  

Should I learn Python or JavaScript first?  

Python and JavaScript are both great to start your career in the field of software development, but deciding which one to learn fast is your personal choice.  

If your focus is on automation and data science, you can learn Python first. Also, its simple and readable syntax makes the learning process easier.  

If you are interested in web development and want to build interactive web pages, then you can consider learning JavaScript first.  

Should I learn Python if I know JavaScript and vice versa? 

Yes, learning both JavaScript and Python will enhance your programming skills and help you shape your career. By learning Python and JavaScript, you will increase your problem-solving abilities, get broader career opportunities, and be able to work on full-stack development projects.  

Can I learn Python without knowing HTML?  

Yes, you can learn Python even if you don’t know HTML. It is a versatile and beginner-friendly language with simple syntax, so you can easily learn to program in Python without knowing HTML.  

Which programming language is easier, python or javascript?  

Undoubtedly, Python is easier compared to JavaScript due to its readability and versatility.

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